Brain Fitness with Alvaro Fernandez (BSP 100)

Alvaro Fernandez of SharpBrains

Alvaro Fernandez of SharpBrains

I have been using the SharpBrains website as a source of information and ideas since the early days of my Brain Science Podcast, so it seemed fitting to invite SharpBrains co-founder Alvaro Fernandez to be my guest for Episode 100.   We talked about the second edition of The SharpBrains Guide to Brain Fitness: How to Optimize Brain Health and Performance at Any Age, which he co-authored with Dr. Elkhonon Goldberg (BSP 18). The goal of this book is to give people from all backgrounds a practical guide for evaluating the current science and establishing their own "brain fitness" regimen, much in the way that each of us must choose a physical fitness that meets our individual needs and lifestyle.

Brain Fitness should not just be a concern for older people, it should become a key component of a healthy lifestyle at any age. The SharpBrains Guide to Brain Fitness is a great first step.

How to get this episode:

 

  • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
  • Buy Transcript for $1.
  • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
  • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

Links and References: 

Celebrating BSP 100

To celebrate Episode 100 of the Brain Science Podcast I invited listeners to contribute audio to the show. I couldn't use everything, but I want to thank everyone who submitted content.  The following listeners are featured:  

  •  "I Got a Brain" Written and Performed by Dr. Jay Einhorn
  • Interview with Darryl Ferges
  • "Mindfire" (new theme music) by Tony Cotraccia
  • Audio comments:  Leon Mcgahee, MD., Eric Lindley, Julio Dantos, Hamish Kebb, and Adelia Moore, PhD
  • Email from Jana Johnson

Send Feedback to brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com. 

      Interview: Temple Grandin (BSP 99)

      photo by Rosalie Winward  (Click photo to play mp3)

      photo by Rosalie Winward  (Click photo to play mp3)

      Last month I posted a detailed discussion of Temple Grandin's latest book The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum (with Richard Panek), so I am pleased to share a follow interview with Dr. Grandin (BSP 99). This interview is different from the typical Brain Science Podcast because our focus is on the practical issues that face people who are dealing with autism. Of course, as Dr. Grandin emphasized, autism occurs across a wide spectrum ranging from those who can never learn to speak to high functioning professionals exemplified by Temple Grandin herself.  Dr. Grandin speaks from personal experience grounded in her own scientific curiosity.

      How to get this episode:

      • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
      • Buy Transcript for $1.
      • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
      • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

      Links and References:

        Announcements: 

        • The Brain Science Podcast mobile app is now available for Windows 8 devices.
        • Deadline for listener submissions for BSP 100 is August 1, 2013
        • Unfortunately Mensana has closed down, so CEU's are not currently available for the Brain Science Podcast. I am looking for a new vendor. 
        • Don't forget to sign up for the BSP Newsletter so that you can get episode show notes automatically, and never miss a new episode. 

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        "The Autistic Brain" by Temple Grandin (BSP 98)

         The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum  by Temple Grandin (with Richard Panek), is a tremendous gift, not just to patients and their families, but also to teachers, mentors, friends, and everyone who is interested in understanding how our brains make us who we are.

        I think that this is a book everyone should read because as we come to appreciate the fact that the strengths and challenges of autism occur across a broad spectrum, we may also realize that some of these issues actually affect people who aren't considered autistic.  It is not the label that matters.  What does matter is recognizing that each of us has his or her own strengths and weaknesses, but thanks to brain plasticity, we all have the potential to nurture our strengths and, when necessary, accommodate our weaknesses.

         

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References and Related Episodes:

        Announcements: 

        • I am still trying to schedule an interview with Dr. Temple Grandin, but there is a possibility that the next episode of the Brain Science Podcast will not come out until August 2013.
        • The Deadline for listener submissions to Episode 100 is August 1, 2013.
        • Several products are not available directly on this website including the PDF version of Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty by Ginger Campbell, MD and a zip file contain BSP 1-10. Click here to learn more.
        • Be sure to sign up for the Brain Science Podcast Newsletter so that you can receive show notes automatically and NEVER miss a new episode. (But there was a glitch last month, so if you did not get the show notes for BSP 97, please click here.

        Neuroanthropolgy: What Is It and WHY Should You Care? (BSP 97)

        You may be tired of seeing the prefix "neuro" used to describe every new fad, but The Encultured Brain: An Introduction to Neuroanthropology [2012] edited by Daniel H. Lende and Greg Downey makes an impassioned argument for why neuroscience and anthropology should be working together to unravel the ongoing mystery of how our brains make us who we are.  The latest Brain Science Podcast  (BSP 97) is a thought-provoking conversation with Downey and Lende.  After explaining that anthropology can offer neuroscience field data about "brains in the wild," we explore two case studies that demonstrate the promise of this new partnership.

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files

        Subscribe to the Brain Science Podcast or listen on the BSP Mobile app.

        References and Links:

        Announcements:

        • he Brain Science Podcast is nearing episode 100! I want to include listener comments. Send your emails and mp3 files to brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com or click here to learn more.
        • The Brain Science Podcast Newsletter has moved to Mailchimp. Click here for the new sign-up form.
        • Please nominate the Brain Science Podcast as one of the best science podcasts on the web at http://www.thesciencestudio.org.
        • Keep an eye out for the latest BSP News!

        Robert Burton's "Skeptic's Guide to the Mind" (BSP 96)

        Robert Burton, MD

        Robert Burton, MD

        In On Being Certain: Believing You Are Right Even When You're Not, Robert Burton showed that the feeling of certainty, which is something we all experience, has its origin in brain processes that are both unconscious and inaccessible to consciousness . Now in his new book, A Skeptic's Guide to the Mind: What Neuroscience Can and Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves, he extends these ideas to other mental sensations such as our feeling of agency and our sense of causation.  The idea that much of what our brain does is not accessible to our conscious awareness is NOT new, but Dr. Burton considers the implications for our understanding of the MIND.

        When we talked recently (BSP 96), Dr. Burton explained that his new book has two main parts.  In the early chapters, he extends the principles he developed in On Being Certain to other mental sensations. We tend to take things like our feeling of certainty, agency, and causation for granted, but he points out that these are generated in parts of the brain that we can neither access or control.  What makes A Skeptic's Guide to the Mind stand out is that Burton then explores the implications of this reality. He argues that while we can become ever more knowledgeable about how our brain works, the MIND, which is something that we each experience subjectively, is much more elusive.

        The fact that we are trying to study the MIND with the MIND has inherent limitations and I think that Dr. Burton is right when he says our response should be HUMILITY.

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Related Episodes:

        • BSP 42: A discussion of On Being Certain
        • BSP 43: Interview with Robert Burton about On Being Certain
        • BSP 67: Interview with Thomas Metzinger, author of The Ego Tunnel  
        • BSP 85: Interview with Sebastian Seung, author of Connectome.

        Send me feedback at brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com.

        Understanding Pain (BSP 95)

        In Understanding Pain: Exploring the Perception of Pain,  Dr. Fernando Cervero does a wonderful job of condensing his 40+ years of research and immersion in the field of pain research into a concise but readable account.  It's a great introduction, and it's bound to inspire a new generation of physicians and researchers.

        I interviewed Dr. Cervero in BSP 93, and this month's podcast (BSP 95) is the promised second part of our discussion of pain.  I focus on some of the topics that Dr. Cervero and I did not have time to discuss, including a look at how the mechanisms of acute pain differ significantly from those of chronic pain.  The growing appreciation of these differences offers hope to the millions of people around the world who suffer from chronic pain, but the ongoing efforts of researchers like Dr. Cervero also offer hope of improved pain relief for everyone.

        Unfortunately, for those of you who love audiobooks, Understanding Pain, is not available in audio; but it is a relatively short book (under 200 pages) that I recommend to everyone.  

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References and Links:

        Announcements:

        How the Brain Makes Meaning (BSP 94)

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        In his first book, Louder Than Words: The New Science of How the Mind Makes Meaning, linguist Benjamin K. Bergen manages to make a large amount of scientific research both accessible and entertaining.  Dr. Bergen is one of the new breed of linguists who are working with neuroscientists to explore some of the key questions about language and the brain.  When I interviewed him recently (BSP 94), we talked about the challenges of writing about how science is really done, but we focused on one of the key questions facing cognitive neuroscience: how does the brain understand language?

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Related Episodes:

        Announcements:

        • will be at South by SouthWest in Austin, TX March 7-10. If you are going to be there, please send me an email or message via Twitter.
        • Please do our short audience survey.
        • Visit the new Announcements page to learn how you can help with the campaign to get me invited onto the TWiT show Triangulation.
        • Since this website is brand new please send me your feedback and let me know if you find any bad links or other problems.

        Pain is a Complex Emotional and Sensory Experience (BSP 93)

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        Dr. Fernando Cervero  

         

        Dr. Fernando Cervero of McGill University has been studying pain since the beginning of his career back in the 1960s.  These decades have seen tremendous advances in our neuroscientific understanding of what causes different types of pain, as well as changing attitudes.  Pain was once regarded as something that most people had to endure, but now most of us demand adequate pain relief, sometimes even to the point of not tolerating minor pain.  Dr. Cevero's new book, Understanding Pain, provides an accessible account of both the history of pain research and a thoughtful consideration of the challenges facing the field.

        The latest episode of the Brain Science Podcast  (BSP 93) is an interview with Dr. Cervero.  This is Part 1 of a planned two-part series.

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Meet Dr. Campbell in Person:

        • Downtown Atlanta, Georgia February 19-21, 2013.
        • South by SouthWest: March 7-10, 2013 (Austin, TX, USA).
        • Johannesburg, South Africa April 8,9 2013.

        I would love to some listener meetups, so please drop me an email at gincampbell at mac dot com, if you will be at any of these places on the right days.

        Other Announcements:

        Reminders:

        • Don't forget to get your copy of my eBook, Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty, from Amazon.com.  If you don't have the Kindle app, just send me your Amazon receipt and I will send you the PDF.
        • The Brain Science Podcast is supported by listener donations.  It also relies on your word of mouth, so don't forget to share it with others.
        • Join the Brain Science Podcast  Fan Page on Facebook, Google+, and share your thoughts in our Discussion Forum on Goodreads.  Of course, you can also send me email at brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com.
        • To get show notes automatically and never miss an episode of the Brain Science Podcast, sign up for the BSP Newsletter.

        Neuroscience Highlights for 2012 (BSP 92)

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        The Brain Science Podcast recently passed 4 million downloads and it remains entrenched at or near the top of the iTunes rankings for Science and Medicine. So now it's time for our 6th Annual Review Episode. The purpose of this year-ending podcast is to review some of the year's highlights and key ideas. As I reviewed the transcripts of this year's episodes, I was struck by the fact that although each episode stands alone, they also inform one another. One unifying theme was the importance of taking an evolutionary approach to understanding how the human brain generates complex features like mind and consciousness.

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

         

        Interviews have become an outstanding feature of the Brain Science Podcast. This year I interviewed 10 scientist, including five who have appeared in past podcasts.

        Scientists Interviewed in 2012:

        #Indicates returning guest. See Guest List for previous episode.

        *See the Bibliography page for books featured on the Brain Science Podcast.

        In addition to discussing the books by these guests, I also reviewed Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brainby Michael S. Gazzaniga, and Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brainby Antonio Damasio.

        Related Episodes: 

        • BSP 32: Brief Introduction to brain anatomy.
        • BSP 47: Basics of brain evolution.
        • BSP 57: Chris Frith, author of Making up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World.
        • BSP 67: Thomas Metzinger, author of The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self.

        Announcements:

        Ways to Support the BSP:

        Tell me what you think:

        To get show notes automatically and never miss an episode of the Brain Science Podcast sign up for the BSP newsletter.

        The Origin of Emotions with Jaak Panksepp (BSP 91)

        Jaak-crop.jpg

        Dr. Jaak Panksepp

        In his new book, The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human EmotionsJaak Panksepp set out to make his life's work more accessible to a general audience.  To be honest, reading this book requires a significant commitment, but I think he does a wonderful job of updating his classic textbook, Affective Neuroscience.  Anyone who is interested in this field will definitely want this book as a reference.

        The other strength of Archeology of Mind is its evolutionary approach.  The primary emotional processes that Panksepp has spent his career studying have their origins in the ancient parts of the brain that are shared by all mammals.  This contradicts longstanding assumptions in neuroscience, but it has important implications for both humans and other animals.

        In Episode 91 of the Brain Science Podcast, Dr. Panksepp and I talked about some of the new information contained in Archaeology of Mind, with a particular focus on FEAR, which, contrary to what many researchers claim, does NOT begin in the amygdala, but begins much lower.  We do talk briefly about the experimental evidence, but this was covered in more detail during Dr. Panksepp's previous appearance on the Brain Science Podcast in BSP 65.

        How to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Related Episodes:

        Announcements:

        NMX - I'll Be There

        The earliest episodes of the Brain Science Podcast  are now disappearing from iTunes but they remain freely available here.  They are also available within the Brain Science Podcast  app for mobile devices.  By the way, the mobile app has been updated, and I need users to post new reviews.

        Don't forget to get your copy of my eBook, Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certaintyfrom Amazon.com.  You can also buy the PDF version HERE.

        The Brain Science Podcast is supported by listener Donations.  It also relies on your word of mouth, so don't forget to share it with others.

        Next month's Brain Science Podcast  will be our annual review episode. Meanwhile don't forget to check out my other podcast, Books and Ideas.  The most recent episode is an interview with Emily Reese from Minnesota Classical Radio.

        Join the Brain Science Podcast Fan Page on Facebook, Google+, and share your thoughts in our Discussion Forum on Goodreads.  Of course, you can also send me email at gincampbell at mac dot com.

        To get show notes automatically and never miss an episode of the Brain Science Podcast sign up for the BSP Newsletter.

        Review of "Self Comes to Mind" by Antonio Damasio (BSP 90)

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        Episode 90 of the Brain Science Podcast is a discussion of Self Comes To Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain, by Antonio Damasio. Damasio's book focuses on the answer to two key questions: How does the brain generate the Mind? and, How does the Brain generate Consciousness? His approach is unusual because many scientists and writers treat the Mind and Consciousness as identical. In contrast, Damasio argues that Mind precedes Consciousness. Listen to this podcast to learn how the Mind becomes Conscious.

        ow to get this episode:

        • FREE: audio mp3 (click to stream, right click to download)
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Related Episodes of the Brain Science Podcast: 

        • BSP 21 and BSP 23 How the Brain Creates Maps of the Body
        • BSP 65: Jaak Panksepp talks about the subcortical origins of emotions
        • BSP 89: Evan Thompson talks about his book, Mind in Life

        Announcements:

        • Next month's Brain Science Podcast will be a return interview with Jaak Panksepp to talk about his new book, The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions.
        • Please check out my other podcast, Books and Ideas.
        • The earliest episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are no longer available from iTunes but you can get them here or by buying the Brain Science Podcast  app, which is available for iPhone, iPad, and Android.
        • Get my eBook, Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty, from Amazon.com for only $3.99.
        • Social Websites for the Brain Science Podcast: Discussion Forum on Goodreads, Facebook Fan Page, Google+ page.
        • Don't forget to get some high quality Brain Science Podcast Logo gear from Printfection.
        • Sign up for the Brain Science Podcast  Newsletter so you never miss a new episode.

        Send me feedback at brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com or follow me on Twitter (@docartemis).

        "Mind in Life" with Evan Thompson (BSP 89)

        Evan-crop.jpg

        Evan Thompson, PhD

         

        Embodied Cognition is a movement within cognitive science that argues that the mind is inseparable from the fact that the brain is embedded in a physical body. This means that everything that the brain does, from the simplest perception to complex decision-making, relies on the interaction of the body with its environment.  Evan Thompson's book, Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind, is an in-depth look at what he calls the "enactive" approach to embodied cognition. The enactive approach was pioneered by Thompson's mentor Francisco Varela, and it emphasizes the importance of the body's active engagement with its environment.

        In a recent interview (BSP 89) I talked with Thompson about some of the key ideas in Mind in Life. Unlike most episodes of the Brain Science Podcast, this is not really a stand-alone episode. It is part of my ongoing exploration of both embodied cognition and the controversial topic of emergence. It is also intended as a follow-up to my recent interview with Terrence Deacon.

        How to get this episode:

         

        References:

        Related Episodes: 

        • BSP 5: A bried introduction to philosphy of mind
        • BSP 25: Embodied Intelligence with Rolf Pfeifer
        • BSP 36: Art Glenberg on Embodied Cognition
        • BSP 53: Discussion of Did My Neurons Make Me Do It? (emergence and free will)
        • BSP 62: Warren Brown, co-author of Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?
        • BSP 73: Lawrence Shapiro, author of Embodied Cognition.
        • Books and Ideas #47: Terrence Deacon, author of Incomplete Nature.

        Announcements:

        • Continuing education credit is now available for selected episodes of the Brain Science Podcast. Click here to learn more.
        • I will be in Philadelphia, PA October 16-21 to attend the annual meeting of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Please contact me if you would like to get together.
        • My eBook Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty is on sale for only $2.99. Please post your review.
        • Next month's Brain Science Podcast will be a discussion of Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain by Antonio Damasio. Self Comes to Mind is also available from our sponsor Audible.com.
        • Please visit the Brain Science Podcast on Facebook or Google+, or join the BSP  Discussion Forum at Goodreads.com.
        • Never miss an episode of the Brain Science Podcast!  Sign up for the Newsletter.
        • Send me (Dr. Campbell) email at brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com or follow me on Twitter (@docartemis).

        "The Self Illusion" with Bruce Hood (BSP 88)

        BruceHood.jpg

        Bruce Hood, PhD

         

        The Self Illusion: How the Social Brain Creates Identity, by Bruce Hood, is a fascinating look at how our brains create both our experience of the world and our sense of being a single, coherent self.  As the word "illusion" in the title indicates, neither is exactly what it seems.  When I interviewed Dr. Hood (BSP 88), he explained that The Self Illusion is a broad introduction to this somewhat surprising idea. The  Self Illusion was written with a general audience in mind.  For those already familiar with the topic, he also puts a new emphasis on the role of development.  All readers should come away with a new appreciation for the critical role social interactions play through out human life.

        How to get this episode:

        Related Podcasts:

        Additional References:

        Announcements:

        Brain Aging Research with Dr. Pamela Greenwood (BSP 87)

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        Pamela Greenwood, PhD

        Nuturing the Older Brain and Mind, by Pamela M. Greenwood and Raja Parasuaman provides a comprehensive review of the current research in cognitive aging.  In the latest Brain Science Podcast (BSP 87)Dr. Greenwood explains that brain aging and cognitive aging are not the same thing; the typical brain changes that are associated with normal brain aging (such as shrinkage) are not reliable predictors of cognitive decline. Fortunately, even though normal brain aging is still not well understood, the discovery of brain plasticity is shifting the focus of research. Not only does brain plasticity offer new hope for people who suffer strokes and other brain injuries, it also suggests that life style choices influence cognitive function at all ages.

        Nurturing the Older Brain and Mind is intended for an academic audience but it is accessible to everyone. This month's interview with Dr. Greenwood (BSP 87) focuses on dispelling the most stubborn myths about brain aging. We also talk about the practical steps we can all take to help maintain our cognitive performance.

        How to get this episode:

        Related Episodes:

        • BSP 10: Introduction to Brain Plasticity.
        • BSP 26: Norman Doidge, author of The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science.
        • BSP 28: Edward Taub: applying brain plasticity to stroke rehabilitation.
        • BSP 68: Peter Whitehouse on dementia versus normal brain aging.

        References:

        • Nurturing the Older Brain and Mind, by Pamela M. Greenwood and Raja Parasuraman (2012).
        • The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science, by Norman Doidge.
        • Greenwood, P. M. (2007) Functional Plasticity in Cognitive Aging: Review and Hypothesis. Neuropsychology  21(6) 657–673.
        • Greenwood, P. M., and Parashauraman, R. (2010) Neuronal and cognitive plasticity: A neurocognitive framework for ameliorating cognitive aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2: 150.
        • Gould, E. and Gross, C.G. (2002) Neurogenesis in adult mammals: Some progress and problems. Journal of Neuroscience 22 (3): 619-623.
        • Taub, E., Uswatte, G., and Elbert, T. (2002) New treatments in neurorehabilitation founded on basic research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3 (3): 228-236.
        • Grady, C. L., McIntosh, A.R., and Craik, F.I. (2003) Age-related differences in the functional connectivity of the hippocampus during memory encoding. Hippocampus 13 (5): 572-586.
        • Colcombe, S.J., A.F. Kramer, K.I. Erickson, P. Scalf, E. McAuley, N.J. Cohen, A. Webb, et al.,
        • Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004. 101(9): p. 3316-21.
        • Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S. and Lindenberger, U. (2009) Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: Can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest 9 (1): 1-65.
        • Kramer, A.F., Larish, J. F.,  and Strayer, D. L. (1995) Training for attentional control in dual tasking settings: A comparison of young and older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 1: 50-76.
        • Nagamatsu, L.S., Handy, T. C., et. al. 2012. Resistance Training Promotes Cognitive and Functional Brain Plasticity in Seniors With Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment.Archives of Internal Medicine 172 (8) 666-668.
        • Liu-Ambrosea, T.,  Nagamatsua, L.S., Vosse, M.W.,  Khanc, K.M., and. Handy, T. C. (2012) Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging 33: 1690 –1698.
        • Willis, S.L. et. al (2006) Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (23): 2805-2814.
        • For more references: see Nurturing the Older Brain and Mind and the free transcript of BSP 87.

        Announcements:

        Terrence Deacon (Podcast Interview)

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        In his new book, Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter, Terrence Deacon writes that his goal is to “demonstrate how a form of causality depending specifically on absent features and unrealized potential can be compatible with our best science.” (page 16).  But in a recent interview (Books and Ideas #47) he also contends that his book "grew out of a dissatisfaction with the systems theory approach."

        He feels strongly that "to understand the origin of end-directed phenomena, representational phenomena, or mental phenomena, you need to take one further step; you need to figure out what’s beyond self-organization that needs to be explained to account for these things."  Thus, his ambitious goal is to find a place for meaning within science.

        Incomplete Nature is a dense but compelling book, and the goal of this interview is to introduce listeners to the idea that life and meaning are compatible with a scientific world view. 

        Disgust with Rachel Herz (BSP 86)

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        Disgust is an universal emotion, but unlike emotions like fear and anger, disgust must be learned.  This is the main conclusion of Dr. Rachel Herz's latest book, That's Disgusting: Unraveling the Mysteries of Repulsion.  In a recent interview (BSP 86), Dr. Herz told me why she spent the last several years studying this rather unusual subject.  We also discussed what the study of disgust can tell us about how our brains process emotion.

        This is Dr. Herz's second visit to the Brain Science Podcast.  Back in BSP 34 we talked about her first book, The Scent of Desire: Discovering Our Enigmatic Sense of Smell.

        How to get this episode:

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        Announcements:

        "Are You Sure?" Hits Kindle today!

        I have just published my first eBook: Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty.  It is available for the Kindle now, and will be out for iBooks and Nook shortly.  This is based on two of my favorite episodes of the Brain Science Podcast.

        A free PDF version is available to anyone who sends me a copy of their Amazon receipt.

        This is Volume 1 of a new series called Brain Talk: Conversations with Neuroscientists, which I hope will bring the content of the Brain Science Podcast to a broader audience.

        I have also started a newsletter for people who only want news about my writing, but who don't want to get podcast announcements.

        Sebastian Seung Explores the Brain's Wiring (BSP 85)

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        Dr. Sebastian Seung

        Dr. Sebastian Seung (MIT) is an ambitious young scientist; his goal is to unravel the entire wiring diagram of the human brain.  Considering that it took over a decade to determine the wiring diagram for the roundworm C elegans, which has a mere 302 neurons, it is clear that scientists can't leap directly to the 80 billion neuron human brain.  Even so, in his new book Connectome: How the Brain's Wiring Makes Us Who We Are, Seung makes a very good argument for the value of this long-term project.  In Episode 85 of the Brain Science Podcast I talked with Dr. Seung both about the challenges and potential benefits of this work.

        How to get this episode:

        References and Links:

        Send me feedback at brainsciencepodcast@gmail.com.

        Update on Consciousness Research with Christof Koch (BSP 84)

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        Christof Koch, PhD

        he scientific study of consciousness was once viewed with skepticism, but this has changed dramatically in recent years.   According to pioneering neuroscientist, Christof Koch, "the great thing is we’re not condemned to just sort of philosophical speculation, but we can make some predictions, and then go out and measure them.  And those are the things I talk about in this book, Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist." In Brain Science Podcast  #84, Koch reflects on the progress that has been made since I interviewed him back in 2007 (BSP 22), and he also talks about the latest initiatives at the Allen Institute for Brain Research, where he as recently become the chief science officer. 

        How to get this episode:

        • Buy Audio (mp3) for $1.
        • Buy Transcript for $1.
        • Premium Subscribers now have unlimited access to all old episodes and transcripts.
        • The most recent 25 episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are still FREE. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.

        References:

        Announcements:

        "Mind and Brain" with William Uttal (BSP 83)

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        William Uttal, PhD

        There is nothing more exciting than the mind/brain problem" according to Dr. William Uttal, author of Mind and Brain: A Critical Appraisal of Cognitive Neuroscience.  In the latest episode of the Brain Science Podcast  (BSP 83) I talked with Dr. Uttal about why he feels that brain imaging can not solve this mystery.

        First, there is the problem that brain imaging represents the wrong level of analysis because every spot you see on a brain scan actaully represents thousands of neurons.  This means that the activity and interaction between individual neurons has been lost. Then there is the problem of reproducibility, with divergent results between studies.

        The evidence is accumulating that "much of the brain responds to any stimulus, and every area of the brain participates in multiple functions."  This means that asking where a given function occurs may be the wrong question.

        BSP 83 represents an on-going discussion of these issues, so I have included links to related episodes in the show notes. 

        How to get this episode:

        References: 

        Related Podcasts:  

        Reminders:

        Send me feedback at gincampbell at mac dot.com.